Oxygen therapy: For people not getting enough oxygen, oxygen therapy -through a facemask or tube inserted in the nostrils – can be administered either in the hospital or at home. A variety of devices are available for use at home depending on the level of mobility.
Inhaled medication therapy: Inhaled drugs reach the airways quickly and directly, such as bronchodilators to open the airways, antifungal medications and antibiotics. They can also be use for surgical patients on a ventilator, who cannot take medications on their own.
Lung volume expansion therapy: For patients who need to expand their lungs or to keep them clear after surgery, using techniques such as incentive spirometer (a device which measures inhaled air) or CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure involves wearing a mask on the face to blow pressurized air into the airway to keep it from collapsing).
ECMO (extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation): A modified version of a heart-lung bypass machine, ECMO does the work of a patient’s failing heart and lungs for a period of weeks, sometimes months – often long enough for the heart and lungs to rest and recover, increasing the patient’s chance of survival.
Journal of Intensive and Critical Care Nursing